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Electronic manufacturing industry
Why does PCBA process still require manual soldering?

In the production process of electronic products, after PCB goes through SMT patching, DIP plug-in, reflow soldering, wave soldering or manual soldering, PCB becomes PCBA. Automated PCBA service processing technology is getting higher and higher, why is manual soldering still needed? This article will introduce about this.

Table of Contents

What is manual soldering in PCBA?

Manual soldering is a process in which electronic components are attached to a printed circuit board (PCB) by hand using a soldering iron or soldering station. The soldering iron is used to melt solder, a metal alloy with a low melting point, which then forms a bond between the electronic components and the PCB. This process is essential for creating electrical connections between the components and the PCB, ensuring proper functionality of the electronic device.

Why is the manual soldering needed in PCBA?

Why is the manual soldering needed in PCBA?Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) processing often involves a combination of automated and manual processes. While automation has significantly advanced in the electronics manufacturing industry, there are several reasons why manual welding or soldering is still required in certain situations:

Complexity of Components and Designs: Some electronic components may be small, delicate, or have intricate designs that are challenging for automated machines to handle accurately. Human operators can adapt to variations and handle complex situations more effectively.

Prototype and Low-Volume Production: In the early stages of product development or for low-volume production runs, it may not be cost-effective to set up fully automated assembly lines. Manual labor is more flexible and can be quickly adjusted to accommodate design changes or low production volumes.

Repair and Rework: Manual soldering is often necessary for repairing or reworking assemblies. Automated systems may not be able to deal with the nuances of fixing defects, replacing faulty components, or addressing unexpected issues that arise during the manufacturing process.

Customization and Specialized Processes: Some electronic products require customization or involve specialized processes that are not easily automated. Manual labor allows for a more hands-on and adaptable approach to meet specific requirements.

High Mix, Low Volume Production: In industries where there is a high mix of products but low production volume for each, manual labor may be more cost-effective than investing in highly specialized and automated equipment for each product variant.

Cost Considerations: In certain cases, especially for smaller companies or for specific applications, the cost of implementing and maintaining highly automated equipment may outweigh the benefits. Manual labor can be a more economical choice for these scenarios.

Skill and Expertise: Skilled operators can provide a level of precision and attention to detail that may be challenging for automated systems to achieve. Manual labor is essential when dealing with intricate or delicate components that require a human touch.

Difference between automated soldering and manual soldering in PCBA

Difference between automated soldering and manual soldering in PCBAIn Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA), soldering is a critical process that establishes electrical connections between electronic components and the circuit board. The methods employed for soldering can be broadly categorized into automated and manual soldering. Automated soldering, encompassing techniques like reflow soldering and wave soldering, offers speed, efficiency, and consistency, making it ideal for high-volume production. This approach relies on specialized machines to solder multiple components simultaneously, ensuring uniformity and minimizing defects.

On the other hand, manual soldering, performed by skilled technicians using soldering irons, provides flexibility, adaptability, and precision. This method is well-suited for low-volume production, prototyping, and tasks requiring intricate handling of delicate or fine-pitch components. While automated soldering excels in mass production scenarios, manual soldering remains indispensable for its ability to address customization, repair, and intricate soldering challenges. The choice between these approaches depends on factors such as production volume, cost considerations, and the complexity of the assembly.

Manual soldering requires skill and precision, as the operator must carefully control the soldering iron to avoid damaging sensitive components or the PCB. Skilled technicians are often employed for manual soldering tasks to ensure the quality and reliability of the solder joints.

In contrast, automated soldering processes, such as wave soldering or reflow soldering, are used for high-volume production where efficiency and consistency are crucial. These processes involve machines that can solder multiple components simultaneously, offering speed and repeatability that may not be achievable through manual soldering alone.


While automation continues to advance, there are situations where the flexibility, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of manual labor make it an integral part of the PCBA processing. As technology evolves, the balance between manual and automated processes may shift, and increased automation may become more feasible for a wider range of applications.

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