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Electronic manufacturing industry
What is wire bonding in PCB

With the development of integrated circuits, the ignition module function continues to increase, more and more leads, but the volume is getting smaller and smaller, resulting in an increasing area ratio of pads in the entire circuit. As an interconnect process for chip packaging in the semiconductor industry, wire bonding has gradually become a key technology to solve product miniaturization.

Wire Bonding uses thin metal wires to use heat, pressure, and ultrasonic energy to tightly weld metal leads to substrate pads, so as to realize electrical interconnection between chips and substrates and information exchange between chips.

This article will introduce about something called wire bonding. This might sound complex, but I promise you it isn’t! So, let’s dive into it.

Table of Contents

What is wire bonding in PCB

Wire bonding is like the friend-making process in the world of electronics. Just like you connect with your friends, wire bonding is a method that connects tiny electrical parts together on a printed circuit board (PCB). Imagine a PCB like a miniature city where different buildings (components) need roads (wires) to connect them. Wire bonding is the process of creating these roads.

What is wire bonding in PCB
What is wire bonding in PCB

What is the purpose of wire bonding

The main goal of wire bonding is to make sure that all the different parts of a PCB can talk to each other. Think about it like this – if you want to chat with your friend who lives in another building, you’ll need a way to reach them, right? It’s the same with the components on a PCB – they use wire bonds to communicate and work together.

What is the application of wire bonding

Wire bonding is used in many everyday electronics, like your phone or computer. It’s also used in complex technology like satellites and even medical devices. Wherever there are tiny electronic parts that need to work together, you can bet that wire bonding is involved !

What are the three types of wire bonding process

The three types of wire bonding process
The three types of wire bonding process

Wire bonding can be like making a sandwich. There are different ways to do it. Here, we have three types of wire bonding: ball bonding, wedge bonding, and compressive bonding.

Ball Bonding

Ball bonding is the most common type of wire bonding. It’s like using a spoon to scoop out some peanut butter or better still, Imagine you’re making a tiny snowball. That’s what the end of the wire looks like in ball bonding! The wire, usually made from gold, is heated and a small ball is formed at its end. This ball is then pressed onto the PCB to create the bond.

Why is this method popular? It’s because this process is super quick and works well with softer metals like gold. It’s kind of like when you find a shortcut in your favorite video game that saves you a bunch of time!

Wedge Bonding

Now let’s talk about wedge bonding. Unlike ball bonding, wedge bonding on the other hand, is like using a knife to spread the peanut butter. Think of it like using a tiny wedge or knife to stick the wire to the PCB. There’s no ball at the end of the wire. Instead, the wire is directly pressed down onto the board.

Wedge bonding is a little slower than ball bonding, but it’s great for when there isn’t a lot of space. Just like sometimes, you need to use a smaller brush to paint the details in a picture, wedge bonding is used when you need to be precise.

There are two types of wedge bonding, aluminum wedge bonding, and gold wedge bonding. Aluminum wedge bonding uses ultrasonic waves to create the bond, while gold wedge bonding uses heat.

Compressive Bonding

Lastly, we have compressive bonding. This is also known as thermocompression or diffusion bonding. Compressive bonding is more like using a rolling pin to spread the peanut butter. Think of this method as using a tiny rolling pin to stick the wire onto the PCB. The wire and the PCB are squished together using heat and pressure.

This method is often used with gold wires and for components that are sensitive to ultrasonic waves. It’s slower than both ball and wedge bonding, but it provides a very reliable bond. Just like sometimes it’s worth taking a bit more time to make sure your homework is really well done, compressive bonding takes its time to ensure a good connection.

So, those are the three types of wire bonding! Each one has its strengths, and engineers choose which one to use based on what they need for each specific project.

What is wire bonding process

The wire bonding process is pretty cool. It uses a machine that’s like a tiny robot arm. This arm grabs the wire, places it on the PCB, and then uses heat or ultrasonic waves (which are like super-fast sound waves) to attach it. It’s a little bit like gluing something together, but way more advanced !

What material is used for wire bonding

Wire bonding usually uses special types of wire, like gold or aluminum. These are metals that conduct electricity well, meaning they allow the electrical signals to move easily along them. It’s kind of like choosing to slide down a smooth slide instead of a bumpy one – it’s just easier !

What temperature is PCB bonding

The temperature used for PCB bonding can vary, but it’s usually around 150-300°C. That’s way hotter than even the highest setting on your oven! This heat is used to help the wire bond to the PCB securely.

Why is gold used in wire bonding

Why is gold used in wire bonding
Why is gold used in wire bonding

Gold is a very popular choice for wire bonding because it’s super good at conducting electricity and doesn’t rust. Think of it as the superstar athlete in the world of wire bonding. It’s not the cheapest option, but it’s one of the best !

What surface finish for wire bonding

The surface finish for wire bonding should be clean and smooth. This is because a smooth surface makes it easier for the wire bond to stick. Imagine trying to stick a sticker onto a rough surface compared to a smooth one. The sticker is going to stick better to the smooth surface, right? It’s the same idea for wire bonding.

How thick is wire bond

The thickness of a wire bond is incredibly tiny, usually around 15-50 micrometers. To put it in perspective, human hair is about 75 micrometers thick, so a wire bond is even thinner than that !

How much current can a wire bond carry

Even though wire bonds are tiny, they can carry quite a bit of current. Typically, a single wire bond can carry about 1 Ampere of current. That’s about the same as a small LED light bulb. Imagine such a thin wire carrying enough electricity to power a light !

Conclusion

And there you have it! Wire bonding may seem complicated, but when you break it down, it’s all about connecting parts together, just like how we connect with each other. Next time you use your phone or computer, remember the tiny wires inside that make it all possible.

FAQ

Wire Bonding uses thin metal wires to use heat, pressure, and ultrasonic energy to tightly weld metal leads to substrate pads, so as to realize electrical interconnection between chips and substrates and information exchange between chips.

Wire bonding can be like making a sandwich. There are different ways to do it. Here, we have three types of wire bonding: ball bonding, wedge bonding, and compressive bonding.

The thickness of a wire bond is incredibly tiny, usually around 15-50 micrometers.

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