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What is Hybrid Integrated Circuit (HIC)

A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) is a miniaturized electronic circuit that combines multiple components within a single package, including passive components like resistors and capacitors, and active components such as transistors and diodes. It typically involves the integration of discrete components onto a substrate using thick film or thin film technology. These circuits are used in a wide range of applications, from consumer electronics to industrial control systems, due to their compact size, low power consumption, high reliability, and cost-effectiveness.

Table of Contents

What are types of integrated circuit

1. Analog Integrated Circuits (ICs) – These ICs are used for amplification, filtering, and processing analog signals such as audio and radio frequency signals.
2. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) ICs- These ICs integrate mechanical elements such as sensors or actuators into microchips. MEMS ICs have applications in automotive and consumer electronics industries.
3. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFICs) – RFICs are designed to work with frequencies ranging from a few kilohertz to GHz range. They are extensively used in wireless communication devices such as cell phones, GPS receivers and satellite dishes.
4. Power Management Integrated Circuits (PMICs) – PMICs regulate the power supply of an electronic device. Applications of PMICs can be seen in portable devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc.
5. ASIC(Application-Specific Integrated Circuit)-ASIC is custom-designed to meet specific application requirements such as high computational capacity or low-power consumption, resulting in highly efficient performance.
6.Hybrid integrated circuit. We will talk about this below.

What is hybrid integrated circuit

What is hybrid integrated circuit
Introduction to hybrid integrated circuit

A hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) is a type of electronic circuit that combines multiple components on one substrate, typically ceramic or quartz. It consists of a combination of miniature passive and active electronic components like resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes, and inductors that are mounted onto a single package by using small metallic wires or conductive pathways to connect them together.

Hybrid integrated circuits offer several advantages over traditional printed circuits such as higher component density, improved reliability, and customized functionality according to the specific application requirements. They are widely used in various industries including telecommunications, military, aerospace, medical, automotive, and consumer electronics.

What’s the feature of hybrid integrated circuit

1. Compact size: Hybrid integrated circuits are small, compact and lightweight making them easy to install in different devices.
2. Customizable design: They can be designed to meet specific application needs with a customized combination of passive and active components.
3. Low power consumption: Hybrid integrated circuits consume minimal power requiring minimal maintenance due to low heat generation.
4. Robustness : Hybrid technology can support rugged applications that require high levels of resilience and compatibility with other systems’ requirements.
5. Easy to repair and modify : Hybrid integrated circuits can be easily repaired, replaced or modified through the stacked structure which allows for individual component replacement if need be.
6. Improved signal-to-noise ratio : Hybrid integrated circuitry has better shielding from noise because of its sealed construction during production.

What are advantages and disadvantage of HIC

What are advantages and disadvantage of HIC
The advantages and disadvantage of HIC

Advantages of HIC:
1. Improved data quality: HICs are often better equipped to collect and process high-quality health data due to their advanced technological resources.
2. Access to cutting-edge technology: Patients can benefit from HIC’s use of state-of-the-art equipment for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring.
3. Enhanced scientific research: HICs have the capacity to conduct large-scale studies with diverse populations, which can lead to groundbreaking discoveries and improved medical interventions.

Disadvantages of HIC:
1. Economic burden: The development of advanced healthcare infrastructure and technologies is expensive and may not be feasible in developing countries or those that lack sufficient government support.
2. Unequal participation: Not all countries or regions worldwide have equal access to HIC facilities, creating disparities in health outcomes between these groups.
3. Limited focus on preventive care: While HICs excel at providing excellent tertiary care, there can sometimes be a lack of effort put into promoting preventative medicine and education.
4. Privacy concerns: With increased reliance on electronic health records and online platforms for health-related information dissemination, privacy and security concerns arise regarding how such sensitive information will be handled and safeguarded.

What is the manufacturing process hybrid integrated circuit

1. Design: A design engineer specifies the layout and function of the hybrid IC.
2. Substrate preparation: The substrate material, often ceramic or glass, is cut to size and polished to a smooth surface.
3. Deposition: Thin layers of various materials are deposited onto the substrate using techniques like sputtering or evaporation.
4. Component assembly: Individual semiconductor components and passive components are bonded to the substrate according to the design specifications.

What is the Hybrid integrated circuit packaging

Hybrid integrated circuit packing is a type of packaging used for electronic circuits that combines the advantages of both thick and thin-film technologies. It involves mounting individual components (such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors) onto a ceramic substrate using wire bonding or soldering techniques, followed by encapsulation in a protective plastic or metal package. This allows for greater functionality and miniaturization of electronic devices while maintaining high reliability and performance. Hybrid integrated circuit packages are commonly used in aerospace, military, and medical applications due to their durability and resistance to extreme temperatures and harsh environments.

SIP

A System In a Package (SIP), also known as a subsystem or module, is an electronic component that combines multiple functions or circuits on a single package. It typically contains both analog and digital components, along with passive components such as resistors, capacitors and inductors, all interconnected on a substrate material. The hybrid nature of the package refers to the combination of both surface mount and through-hole technologies used in its construction.

DIP

A dual in-line package (DIP) refers to a type of electronic component that combines two or more different types of technologies in a single package. The term “hybrid” indicates the combination of both analog and digital circuits, as well as discrete components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors.

What is the Hybrid integrated circuit packaging
What is the Hybrid integrated circuit packaging

SOP

A hybrid integrated circuit that has a small outline package (SOP) is a type of electronic component that combines both analog and digital functions in a single circuit. SOP refers to the physical size and shape of the IC, which is typically rectangular with rounded corners and leads or pins along its edges for connection to other components on a printed circuit board. The hybrid IC’s compact form factor makes it ideal for use in applications where space is a premium, such as in mobile devices, automotive systems, and medical equipment.

Other special-shaped modules

Hybrid integrated circuits (HIC) have various special-shaped modules depending on their manufacturing process and application requirements. Some commonly used HIC shapes include rectangular, square, circular, elliptical, and octagonal. These shapes are designed to fit the required area while ensuring optimal space utilization and signal routing.

How to design hybrid circuit

1. Identify the circuit requirements: Determine the function and specifications of the hybrid circuit that you want to design, such as frequency range, input/output impedance, power handling, noise level, and gain.

2. Choose the appropriate components: Select the active and passive components that can satisfy the circuit requirements, based on their electrical characteristics, availability, cost, and reliability. For example, bipolar transistors, field-effect transistors, operational amplifiers, resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transformers may be used depending on the application.

3. Create a schematic diagram: Sketch a block diagram or a circuit diagram of the hybrid circuit,indicating the connections between the components and their respective values. Make sure the arrangement of the components is efficient and compact, taking into account any electromagnetic interference (EMI) considerations.

How to design hybrid circuit
How to design hybrid circuit

4. Test the initial circuit design: Build a PCB breadboard or prototype of the hybrid circuit using available components. Verify that it operates as intended by measuring its performance parameters, such as voltage/current gain, bandwidth, distortion, phase shift, and noise.

5. Refine and optimize the circuit: Based on the test results and feedback from stakeholders, refine the circuit design by adjusting component values, adding filters or biasing networks, changing topology, or choosing better-performing parts. Optimize the design for size, weight, power consumption, and cost.

About Hybrid Integrated Circuits testing

1. Electrical Measurements: This approach involves measuring the electric current flow, voltage drop, and resistance across various components of the circuit using specialized instruments such as multimeters, oscilloscopes, and signal generators.
2. Visual Inspection: In this approach, inspectors use optical microscopes and magnifiers to visually inspect the IC’s surface for physical damage or manufacturing defects such as cracks, scratches, or soldering issues.
3. Functional Testing: This approach requires running a comprehensive set of tests that simulate the real-world conditions under which the Integrated Circuits (IC) will operate. Examples include checking the response time and accuracy of an analog-to-digital converter or verifying the logic functions of digital circuits.

Detecting hybrid integrated circuit packaging

1. Visual Inspection: The simplest and easiest way to identify a hybrid integrated circuit is through visual inspection of the packaging. Hybrid ICs typically have a distinctive appearance characterized by multiple components mounted on a substrate or board.
2. Size: Hybrid ICs tend to be larger than conventional ICs due to the additional components. Therefore, comparing the size with known IC packages might help in identifying their type.
3. Electrical Testing: Electrical testing can also be performed to identify the type of hybrid integrated circuit. For instance, testing voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, or inductance may provide clues as to what kind of electrical components are involved in the hybrid design.

Expanding reading

BICMOS integrated circuit

BiCMOS (bipolar complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) integrated circuit is a type of integrated circuit that combines the advantages of both bipolar and CMOS technologies. In this type of IC, the input stage uses bipolar transistors for high-speed operation while the output stage uses CMOS technology for efficient power consumption.
The BiCMOS process allows designers to integrate complex analog circuits with digital circuitry onto a single chip. The bipolar transistors provide fast switching speeds and high gain for precise control of signal amplification, while the CMOS logic gates provide low power consumption and noise immunity.
BiCMOS ICs are widely used in applications such as data converters, high-speed communication systems, precision voltage references, and sensor interfaces.

Switching power supply control integrated circuit

A switching power supply control integrated circuit (IC) is a semiconductor device that regulates the output voltage of a switching power supply. It controls the timing and duty cycle of an internal switch,which allows it to convert input voltage into a stable DC output voltage with high efficiency. Some examples of popular switching power supply control ICs include the LM2675, UC3825, and LT1376.These ICs are commonly used in electronic circuits such as computers, telecommunications equipment,and automotive applications where efficient voltage regulation is essential.

Conclusion

In conclusion, hybrid integrated circuits have become a popular choice for various electronic devices and systems due to their unique properties and advantages such as high reliability, low cost, compactness, and ease of customization. They combine the best features of both thin-film technology and thick-film technology, allowing different functions to be integrated on a single substrate.

Hybrid integrated circuits are widely used in automotive electronics, military and aerospace applications, medical equipment, consumer electronics, industrial control systems, and more. As technology continues to advance, hybrid integrated circuits are expected to see further developments and innovations, paving the way for new and exciting possibilities in the world of electronics.

FAQ

A hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) is a type of electronic circuit that combines multiple components on one substrate, typically ceramic or quartz. It consists of a combination of miniature passive and active electronic components like resistors, capacitors, transistors, diodes, and inductors that are mounted onto a single package by using small metallic wires or conductive pathways to connect them together.

1. Analog Integrated Circuits (ICs)
2. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) ICs
3. Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFICs)
4. Power Management Integrated Circuits (PMICs)
5. ASIC(Application-Specific Integrated Circuit)
6.Hybrid integrated circuit (HDI)

A dual in-line package (DIP) refers to a type of electronic component that combines two or more different types of technologies in a single package. The term "hybrid" indicates the combination of both analog and digital circuits, as well as discrete components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors.

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