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PCB/PCBA knowledge
Technical problems and solutions during the PCBA manufacturing process

Defects in Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) manufacturing can arise at various stages of the assembly process, impacting the functionality, reliability, and quality of the final product. These defects can manifest in different forms, affecting soldering, component placement, electrical connectivity, and overall performance. Here are defects and solutions during PCBA manufacturing process.

Table of Contents

PCB assembly (PCBA) manufacturing process

PCB assembly (PCBA) manufacturing processThe PCB assembly (PCBA) manufacturing process typically involves several distinct steps, although the exact sequence and number of steps may vary based on the specific requirements of the assembly and the technology used. Here’s a generalized outline:

PCB Fabrication:

Design: Creating the PCB layout using specialized software.
Manufacturing: Producing the bare PCBs by etching copper layers onto substrate materials, drilling holes for vias, and applying solder mask and silkscreen.

Component Procurement:

Sourcing: Procuring electronic components (resistors, capacitors, ICs, etc.) from suppliers.
Verification: Ensuring component authenticity and quality.

Stenciling and Solder Paste Application:

Solder Paste: Applying solder paste to the PCB using stencils that define the areas where components will be soldered.

Component Placement:

Pick-and-Place: Automated machines or manual processes place components onto the solder paste on the PCB according to the design layout.

Reflow Soldering:

Soldering: The PCB with components goes through a reflow oven where the solder paste melts, bonding the components to the board.

Inspection and Testing:

Automated Optical Inspection (AOI): Checking for defects or misalignments in components.
In-Circuit Testing (ICT): Evaluating electrical functionality.

Through-Hole Component Insertion (if applicable):

Manual or Automated: Inserting and soldering through-hole components onto the PCB.

Wave Soldering (if applicable):

Selective/Conventional: Passing the PCB over a wave of molten solder to solder through-hole components.

Cleaning and Post-Solder Inspection:

Residue Removal: Removing flux residue or contaminants left from the soldering process.
Final Inspection: Verifying the quality of solder joints and components.

Testing and Quality Assurance:

Functional Testing: Verifying the functionality of the assembled PCB.
Quality Checks: Ensuring compliance with specifications and standards.

Packaging: Preparing assembled PCBs for shipping or further assembly.
Shipping: Sending the finished PCBs to customers or subsequent assembly processes.

These steps may overlap or be slightly modified based on the manufacturing technology, complexity of the PCB design, or specific requirements of the final product.

The factors that affect PCBA manufacturing process

– Process Complexity: The complexity of the assembly process, such as surface mount technology (SMT), through-hole assembly, mixed technology, or fine-pitch components, can influence the potential for defects.

– Component Variability: Different types of components, their sizes, materials, and quality can contribute to varying defect rates.

– Machine Accuracy and Maintenance: The accuracy and maintenance of assembly machines like pick-and-place systems, reflow ovens, and inspection equipment play a crucial role in defect prevention.

– Operator Skill and Training: Operator skill levels, training, and adherence to standard operating procedures affect defect rates.

– Quality Control Measures: The effectiveness of quality control measures, such as automated optical inspection (AOI), X-ray inspection, or manual inspections, impacts defect detection and prevention.

Technical issues and solutions during the PCBA manufacturing process

1. Soldering Defects

Solder Bridges: Unintended connections between adjacent pads caused by excess solder.

Solution: Use solder wick or desoldering braid to remove excess solder between pads. Adjust the solder paste amount or optimize stencil design to control solder deposition.

Solder Balling: Formation of tiny solder balls on the PCB due to excessive solder paste.

Solution: Optimize stencil design and printing parameters to prevent excess solder paste. Adjust reflow profiles to minimize the formation of solder balls.

Insufficient Solder: Inadequate solder causing poor electrical connections or open circuits.

Solution: Check and adjust the solder paste deposition, ensure proper alignment of the stencil, and verify the reflow profile to ensure adequate solder melting.

2. Component Placement Issues

Misalignment: Components placed incorrectly due to misalignment or inaccuracy in pick-and-place machines.

Solution: Verify and recalibrate pick-and-place machine settings for accurate component placement. Ensure proper feeder setup and component orientation. Implement vision systems or automated alignment tools for precision.

Missing Components: Failure to place all required components onto the PCB during assembly.
Solution: Conduct regular machine checks and inspections to ensure proper component feed and pickup. Implement sensors or vision systems to detect missing components. Double-check component inventory and replenishment processes.

Component Orientation Errors:

Solution: Verify component data and orientation in the assembly database or bill of materials (BOM). Implement machine vision systems or sensors to detect and correct component orientation during placement.

3. Solder Joint Defects

Cold Solder Joints: Incomplete fusion between the component lead and the pad due to inadequate heat or time during soldering.

Solution: Ensure proper preheating and reflow temperatures to achieve adequate solder melting. Verify the solder paste quality and shelf life. Enhance the thermal profile to ensure complete solder flow.

Lifted Pads: Pads lifted from the PCB surface due to excessive heat or mechanical stress during soldering.

Solution: Avoid excessive heat during soldering. Ensure proper pad design and adherence to recommended PCB material and thickness. Use adequate support for large or heavy components.

4. PCB Contamination

Residue and Flux Contamination: Flux residues left on the PCB after soldering, leading to corrosion or electrical issues.

Particulate Contamination: Dust, debris, or foreign particles affecting the integrity of solder joints or components.

Solution: Implement effective cleaning procedures to remove flux residues and contaminants. Use appropriate cleaning agents and methods compatible with the PCB and components.

5. Electrical Issues

Short Circuits: Accidental electrical connections between two conductive points causing a short circuit.

Solution: Inspect and correct component placement accuracy. Ensure appropriate spacing between components and pads. Implement automated optical inspection (AOI) to detect and rectify shorts.

Open Circuits: Failure in the circuit due to a break in the electrical path, often caused by a missing or improperly connected component.

Solution: Verify component placement accuracy and solder joint integrity. Re-solder or repair open connections. Ensure proper soldering temperature and time.

6. Quality Control Problems

Inadequate Testing: Insufficient or ineffective testing processes leading to undetected defects in the final PCBAs.

Inconsistent Quality: Variability in the quality of manufactured PCBs due to inconsistent processes or equipment.

7. Component Compatibility and Integrity

Counterfeit Components: Use of counterfeit or substandard components affecting the functionality and reliability of the assembled PCB.

Component Damage: Components damaged during handling or assembly, impacting their performance or lifespan.

Addressing these technical issues often involves thorough process monitoring, quality control measures, operator training, and adherence to industry standards and best practices throughout the PCBA manufacturing process.


Common defects in PCBA manufacturing include soldering defects (bridges, insufficient solder), component placement errors, defects due to contamination, electrical issues (short circuits, open circuits), and issues related to component quality.

The goal in PCBA manufacturing is to minimize defects through robust process design, regular equipment maintenance, thorough quality control, and continuous improvement practices.

Addressing soldering defects involves a combination of process optimization, equipment calibration, operator training, and adherence to industry standards. Conducting thorough inspections, implementing quality control measures, and continuously improving manufacturing processes are crucial for minimizing soldering defects in PCBA.

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