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Rectifier Circuit - What Are the Types And How Does It Work in Electronics

In most appliances, you’ll notice that there’s a need to convert AC to DC. That’s where rectifier circuits come into play. In this article, you’ll read everything related to rectifier circuits and how they have an important position in the electronics industry.

Table of Contents

What’s a Rectifier Circuit?

Just like its name suggests, a rectifier circuit is a circuit that’s meant to translate AC to DC in any electronic appliance. Moreover, it’s quite natural for the voltage to fluctuate at homes and industries. That’s why the electronic gadgets use rectifier circuits to stabilize the current flow within them.

In most rectifier circuits, you’ll have a diode that ensures that the current flows in one direction. It blocks any voltage flow in the opposite direction.

What Are the Advantages of Rectifier Circuits?

Advantages of rectifier circuit
Advantages of rectifier circuit

●Rectifier circuits act as a power source for appliances that run on direct current. The circuits offer smooth and much-needed direct current in the right manner to the entire appliance.
●The level of efficiency of a rectifier circuit is simply breathtaking.
●You can even apply voltage regulation through rectifier circuits in your electronic appliance.
●Even if a rectifier uses a transformer, the overall size and design are very simple and manageable.
●It’s very cost-effective to implement and use rectifier circuits in a gadget. That helps in controlling the overall manufacturing cost.

Different Types of Rectifier Circuits

1.Half-wave Rectifier
A half wave rectifier will have just one diode to convert the alternating current into direct current. When the positive current wave enters the circuit, the diode conducts that wave and forwards it to the appliance. But when the negative current wave enters the rectifier circuit, the diode blocks that wave, resulting in no conduction of the negative current wave.

Since only positive waves get conducted in the appliance, the result that you get from a half-wave rectifier circuit is a series of half-wave pulses and the direct current isn’t smooth. That’s due to the absence of negative current waves.

The usage of a half-wave rectifier circuit is therefore, very limited, only to certain appliances where you’ll need a basic rectifier and save the overall cost of manufacturing the appliance.

2.Full-wave Rectifier
Unlike half-wave, the concept of full-wave rectifier circuit states that the diodes in the circuit will convert positive and negative current waves and forward them to the appliance. To do so, the rectifier circuit will use multiple diodes. Since both the waves get converted and conducted to the appliance, you’re sure to get a smooth flow of electricity within your gadget.

There will be a pair of diodes in the rectifier circuit that’ll convert the positive waves. And as soon as the negative waves enter the rectifier circuit, another pair of diodes will take care of their conversion. So, there are two pairs of diodes.

Now, you can divide the concept of full-wave rectifiers in these parts:
a.Bridge Rectifier
A bridge is created that uses 4 diodes for converting positive and negative AC waves. The arrangement of diodes is in the form of a bridge and the current is allowed to be conducted only in one direction. The resultant circuit is very compact and efficient as it allows smooth flow of electricity.

b.Center-tapped Full-wave Rectifier
Instead of using 2 pairs of diodes, there will be just one pair that’s configured with a center-tapped transformer. When the positive and negative current waves enter the rectifier circuit, they get conducted by the diodes and are forwarded to the transformer.

The entire concept of center-tapped full-wave rectifier circuit is to ease the overall design of the circuit. But due to the addition of a transformer, the size of the circuit increases.

What Are the Applications of Rectifier Circuits?

  • Automotive Industry
    The rectifier circuits are used to convert the mechanical energy (from the engines) to electrical energy, which is later used to charge the battery and power up all the electrical components in a vehicle.
  • X-ray Machines
    X-ray machines need a stable supply of power throughout the operation, which is why, using a rectifier circuit in them is a brilliant idea.
  • UPS
    UPS are widely used in the IT industry and many more places. The sole purpose of a UPS is to offer stable and uninterrupted power supply, which is possible by using a rectifier circuit in it.

Also read: Exploring PCBA X-ray inspection – An optimal method to detect the hidden defects

Half-Wave vs Full-Wave Rectifiers

Half Wave vs Full-Wave Rectifiers

Comparison Basis

Half-wave

Full-wave

Number of diodes

Single diode

Multiple diodes

Efficiency

Less efficient

More efficient

Output

Output frequency same as input frequency

Output frequency twice than input frequency

Uses

Used for cost-effective manufacturing

Used for smooth power output

Ripple voltage

high

less

How Rectifier Circuits Work in Electronics?

How does rectifier circuits work in electronics
How does rectifier circuits work in electronics

The primary component in a rectifier circuit is diode, on which its entire working structure relies. Here’s how a rectifier circuit work in general:
1.AC input: The rectifier circuit is connected to an alternating power source, most typically your house wall’s power outlet.
2.Rectification: The AC is input, which is rectified by the diodes and/or transformer.
3.Pulsation: Once the current is rectified, there may still be some ripple, which needs to be resolved. For that, the circuit uses capacitors and/or voltage regulators.
4.Filtering: The current is filtered using a filter capacitor, which helps in smoothing the current waves.
5.Voltage regulation: The final step is to regulate the DC depending on how much current needs to be supplied to the appliance. For this, voltage regulators are used in the circuit.

Also read: AC vs DC – A Complete Guide on What You Need to Know

What Factors to Consider When Designing Rectifier Circuits?

1.Diodes: You can’t simply use just any diode in the rectifier circuits. You’ll need a specific diode with a specific rating depending on the overall use of the circuit.
2.Heat dissipation: Since rectification is a continuous process, your circuit will generate a lot of heat. You need to do something to get the heat off the circuit and keep it cool.
3.Type of rectifier: Of course, you need to decide if you need a half-wave or a full-wave rectifier circuit. That’s important because using a wrong circuit can cause device failure.

Conclusion

So far you learned about rectifier circuits and everything about their implementation in the electronics gadgets. If you believe that your project needs a rectifier circuit in it, but are not sure about the proceedings, then IBE Electronics will be there to help you out.

FAQ

Just like its name suggests, a rectifier circuit is a circuit that’s meant to translate AC to DC in any electronic appliance.

  1. Half-wave Rectifier
  2. Full-wave Rectifier
  • Automotive Industry
  • X-ray Machines
  • UPS

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