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PCB/PCBA knowledge
What Are Common Methods And How to Tetect

This article addresses questions that are raised rather frequently concerning the PCBA testing. This testing includes both the physical testing of components to ensure that they are wired correctly and adhere to their specifications, as well as the functional testing of goods and systems to ensure that they operate in the appropriate manner. The following are some questions that are posed quite frequently about the procedure.

Table of Contents

Why is PCBA testing and inspection necessary?

Why is PCBA testing and inspection necessary
In order to ensure that the final product has a high degree of quality, one of the procedures that must be completed is testing and inspection of the PCBA. After the PCB assembly has been completed, it will undergo testing to ensure that it functions properly. Before initiating manufacturing on a big scale, there must first be extensive testing and inspection of the PCB assembly. This manner, there is no need for costly repairs or product recalls, which can be avoided.

Types of PCBA testing

What are the types of PCBA testing

Types of PCBA testing include functional tests, electrical performance tests, temperature cycling tests, shock and vibration tests, ESD (electrostatic discharge) testing and visual inspection.

  • Functional tests are used to ensure that a circuit board will behave in the expected manner once it has been powered on.
  • The electrical attributes of a circuit board, such as its current and voltage levels, are evaluated using tests known as “electrical performance tests.”
  • Temperature cycling tests are used to verify that a circuit board can withstand the environmental stresses of changing temperatures.
  • Shock and vibration tests are used to verify that a circuit board can withstand the environmental stresses of shock and vibration.

In-circuit testing VS functional testing

Features / Types In-circuit testing Functional testin



In-circuit testing is a method used to test the functioning of individual components on a board.Functional testing focuses on verifying that the circuit as a whole is working correctly.



In-circuit testing is performed on a component level, and it typically uses specialised equipment that sends electrical signals to the components on a board and measures their responses.Functional testing, on the other hand, is performed on the board level, and the emphasis is placed on simulating actual usage scenarios to determine whether or not the board as a whole performs properly in different environments.



In-circuit testing is a process that is more detailed and provides a granular view of the components. This allows for thorough diagnosis and troubleshooting.Functional testing provides a broader view and is useful in verifying the overall performance of the circuit.




Both types of testing are useful in ensuring that the circuit is functioning properly.

How to test the PCBA board?

How to test the PCBA board

Different methods, including flying probe testing, automated optical inspection, visual inspection, and in-circuit testing, are used to check the PCBA board for any flaws that may exist.

  • A visual examination is carried out in order to check that all of the components are situated where they should be and that the circuit board does not contain any obvious defects.
  • In-circuit testing can uncover a variety of faults, including open circuits, improper connections, and short circuits, amongst others.
  • Automated optical inspection checks the board for soldering faults, whereas flying probe testing employs probes to find holes, shorts, and other flaws. Due to the difficulty of the procedure, flying probe testing is typically used as a secondary method to verify the findings of more straightforward tests.

What PCBA testing and inspection methods do we commonly use?

X-Ray Inspection, Automated Optical Inspection, Solderability Testing, In-Circuit Test, and Functional Component Test are just few of the commonplace PCBA tests and inspections that are done.

Testing for solderability and X-ray inspection assist ensure that all components are properly assembled.
While ICT and FCT are used to ensure the board is operating properly as a whole, AOI is used to swiftly discover and classify problems in surface-mount components.

These inspection and testing procedures will guarantee that the PCBA assemblies used in the final product are of the highest quality and will function dependably.

What common defects that a PCBA testing may detect?

What common defects that a PCBA testing may detect

PCBA testing can uncover a variety of defects, including incorrect components, faulty solder joints, problems with assembly, components that are missing or improperly mounted bad wiring connections, and corrosion.

It is also possible to identify mechanical faults, such as screws that are either missing or loose, pieces that are broken or misaligned, inappropriate sizing, and improper orientation.

Considerations while selecting a PCBA testing manufacturer

  • Think about things like the cost, how dependable the service is, how soon you get results, how helpful the personnel is if you have any problems, and whether or not you have any questions.
  • Prospective producers of PCBA testing equipment must be familiar with the pertinent regulations and safety criteria.
  • Furthermore, they ought to have experience testing products that are analogous to the item that is now being evaluated. As a result of this, it is of the utmost importance to ascertain that the PCBA testing manufacturer makes use of the most cutting-edge instruments and technology in the execution of its tests.


you asked we answer

1) PCB Section Analysis
2) Manual Visual Inspection
3) AOI
4) X-ray
5) Laser Inspection
6) Quadratic Element Dimensional Measurement
7) Hi-Potential Testing (Hi-Pot PCB Testing)

1) Manual Visual Inspection
2) LCR Measurement
3) First Article Inspection (FAI)
4) AOI – Automated Optical Inspection
5) X-RAY – Automated X-ray Inspection
6) What is Flying Probe Test?
7) ICT-IN Circuit Test
8) FCT- Functional Test and System Test
9) Reliability Test
10) Burn-In Testing

FPT testing


  1. Quick tests per PCB unit
  2. Lower costs per unit than FPT
  3. Checks for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and component tolerance
  4. Tests components individually


  1. Long development lead time
  2. High up-front costs

ICT testing


  1. No custom tooling needed
  2. Programming requires less time
  3. Checks for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and component tolerance
  4. Tests components individually


  1. Higher cycle test period times 
  2. Higher cost-per-unit costs

IBE as your best choice for PCBA testing

We have high hopes that after reading this essay, you will have a solid understanding of PCBA testing. It is essential to use a PCBA testing service provider that is reputable and experienced in order to guarantee that the product satisfies all quality standards and passes all of the applicable tests. IBE is your best choice.

Over 17 years experience on PCB and PCBA, IBE has emerged as a reliable end-to-end partner for your PCB fabrication, assembly and testing requirements. We provide one-stop services. No matter how complex your requirement is, you can count on our team of experts to offer you plausible solutions. What we also have on offer are industry best practices that ensure that you are not required to make costly mistakes.

If you have any questions regarding the PCBA Testing, let us know in the comment section below or feel free to contact us!

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