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How to solve the wafer semiconductor failure

In a semiconductor manufacturing process, a batch of wafers experienced some device failures during the functional test phase. After a detailed failure analysis, it was found that the problem occurred on the metal interconnection line, and some interconnection lines were broken. In this article, we will find out how to solve the wafer semiconductor failure. It is illustrated through three parts: what wafer semiconductor failure is, the reason why it occurs and how to solve this problem.

Table of Contents

What is semiconductor wafer?

Semiconductor wafer, usually made of silicon, is a thin slice material. It can be widely found in manufacturing integrated circuits (IC), chip and semiconductor devices and other electronic components. In general, it is shaped as round with a few millimeters to several inches in diameter.

Semiconductor wafer, which is played as substrate role for electronic components, is to achieve the necessary structure and electronic performance for some specific applications. Actually, it is made through a serial complicated manufacturing process including etching, and photolithography, etc.

How is semiconductor made

What is semiconductor wafer failure?

Semiconductor wafer failure refers to problems that occur during the manufacturing process of semiconductor wafers, resulting in reduced device performance, lower yields, or products that do not work properly.

Semiconductor wafer failure brings a variety of negative impacts on semiconductor manufacturers, related industry chains and final consumers, mainly including:

1. Reduced yield
Failed semiconductor wafers lead to a reduction in available yield, reducing overall yield. This can strain supply chains, impacting customer deliveries and order fulfillment.

2. Delays in delivery
Semiconductor wafer failures can cause delays in the production process, affecting the delivery time of products. This can lead to customer dissatisfaction and can damage long-term relationships with customers.

3.Technology development is hindered
Continuous semiconductor wafer failure problems may lead to the diversion of R&D resources of enterprises to solve process problems, thus affecting the research and promotion of new technologies.

4.Environmental impact
Wasted production due to semiconductor wafer failures can lead to more waste and pollution. This has a negative impact on the environment and can lead businesses to face stricter environmental regulations and regulations.

5.Increased costs
Invalid wafers mean waste of raw materials, manpower and process resources. This leads to higher production costs, which can affect the company’s profits and competitiveness.

Why does the semiconductor wafer failure occur?

What makes the semiconductor wafer occur
What makes the semiconductor wafer occur

Semiconductor wafer failures can be traced to a variety of causes. But fundamentally, there are three main reasons:

1. Materials and process issues
Semiconductor wafer manufacturing involves many steps such as etching, deposition, photolithography, annealing, etc. Each step has the potential to cause semiconductor wafer failure. Material and process issues include lattice defects, impurities, metal particles, non-uniform films, unstable process parameters, etc.

2. Design Issues
Design issues are another root cause of semiconductor wafer failure. Design problems include PCB design errors, poor layout, poor PCB signal integrity, and more. These issues can lead to unstable performance, failure, or damage to the device in actual applications.

3. Reliability and External Stress
Reliability issues and external stress are other root causes of semiconductor wafer failure. Poor packaging, thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between packaging material and semiconductor wafer, and external stress (such as temperature, humidity, mechanical stress, etc.) can all lead to device failure.

How to solve the semiconductor wafer failure?

Measures for solving the semiconductor wafer failure
Measures for solving the semiconductor wafer failure

Semiconductor wafer failure needs to be solved through a series of analysis, diagnosis and improvement measures. Here are some suggestions you can consider.

1.Analysis of failure causes
Identify and locate defects on semiconductor wafers through failure analysis techniques (such as atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, etc.). Simultaneously, Statistical Process Control (SPC) analysis is performed on process data to detect potential process issues.

2.Optimizing the process
Optimize the relevant process parameters and processes for the found failure reasons. For example, improving parameter settings in etching, deposition, and lithography processes to improve pattern consistency and reduce surface irregularities. Ensure equipment maintenance and calibration during production to reduce parameter fluctuations.

Also read: PCB Etching: a guide to materials, methods, and safety precautions 

3.Improved Design
Optimize circuit design and layout to improve signal integrity and performance. Ensure designs comply with design rules and verify them with tools such as design rule checking (DRC) and layout and schematic checking (LVS). Simulation and performance evaluation during the design phase to reduce the risk of subsequent failure.

4.Improve test coverage
Implement a strict test strategy to conduct comprehensive electrical tests, structural tests and functional tests on the semiconductor wafer. Through test data, potential failure problems can be found quickly, and failure parts can be analyzed in depth.

5.Take a data-driven approach
Collect and analyze large volumes of data from your production process to identify possible failure causes and trends. Through data analysis, abnormal situations are found and preventive measures are taken to solve potential problems in advance.


As an essential part of the electronic industry, semiconductor wafer greatly impacts the performance and efficiency of electronic devices, especially their sizes and quality. Besides, there are some reasons that lead to semiconductor wafer failure. We have summarized the above content. Hope the suggestion we have provided can give you some inspiration.

Founded in 2005, IBE Electronic has accumulated more than 18 years of experience in PCB and PCB assembly manufacturing. We provide one-stop ODM/OEM manufacturing services. Currently, we have 3 mass manufacturing bases that are separately located in China, Vietnam and the USA. We specialize in providing various PCB categories manufacturing solutions including multilayer PCB, single and double layer PCB, aluminum PCB and metal core PCB, etc.


Semiconductor wafer, usually made of silicon, is a thin slice material. It can be widely found in manufacturing integrated circuit (IC), chip and semiconductor devices and other electronic components.

1.Reduced yield

2.Delays in delivery

3.Technology development is hindered

4.Environmental impact

5.Increased costs

1.Analysis of failure causes

2.Optimizing the process

3.Improved design

4.Improve test coverage

5.Take a data-driven approach

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