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PCB/PCBA knowledge
How to ensure the quality of PCBA? Revealing key testing standards

Printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) is one of the core components of modern electronic equipment. In order to ensure the functionality and reliability of PCBA, manufacturers must follow a series of strict testing standards. This article will take an in-depth look at common standards for PCBA testing.

What is PCBA?

PCBA is a product after all electronic components are mounted and soldered on a printed circuit board. It contains electronic components such as processors, capacitors, resistors, and connectors to form a complete electronic system.

PCBA testing standards

In order to ensure the quality and performance of PCBA, major electronic manufacturing service providers follow a series of testing standards. The following are some commonly used testing standards:

Visual inspection

Exposed Copper: Make sure there is no exposed copper on all solder joints, wires, and connectors.
Component Alignment: Make sure all components are welded correctly and securely in their intended locations.
Solder Balls: Look for solder balls that shouldn’t be there.
Thermal element: Check whether the element is damaged due to excessive heating.

X-ray detection

Use X-ray technology to visualize the internal structure of PCBA and check hidden problems under solder joints, such as soldering quality, voids, bridging, etc.

Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI)

Inspect the PCBA surface with a high-resolution camera to identify missing components, misaligned components, polarity reversal and soldering issues.

Functional testing

Make sure the PCBA works as expected by applying voltages and signals. This is a way to check whether the PCBA is completing its intended function correctly.

Thermal cycle test

Simulate the temperature changes that products may experience in actual use to check the performance and reliability of PCBA under extreme temperature conditions.

Insulation resistance test

Make sure there is adequate insulation between the various parts on the PCBA to prevent accidental short circuits.

Test fixture and interface testing

Electrical testing is performed using specialized fixtures and interfaces to ensure that all connectors and solder points are connected correctly.

Acoustic microscope detection

Using an acoustic microscope, potential internal defects such as internal cracks or cavities are detected using sonic technology.

Environmental testing

Simulate various environmental conditions, such as humidity, salt spray, vibration, etc., to test the durability and reliability of PCBA.

pcba testng standards
pcba testng standards

International standards

Each country and organization has its own PCBA testing standards. For example, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) have both issued a series of standards to guide the manufacturing and testing of PCBAs.

There are several standards used to guide PCBA inspection, including IPC-A-610, IPC-J-STD-001, and IPC-7711/21. These standards provide guidelines for the inspection and acceptance of PCBAs and are widely used in the electronics industry.


PCBA testing standards are the key to ensuring product quality, performance and reliability. It is critical for consumers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to understand and follow these standards. Whether from the perspective of design, manufacturing or testing, every detail of PCBA should be paid attention to to ensure the success of the final product and user satisfaction.

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