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PCB application PCB/PCBA knowledge
computer circuit board

The computer circuit board is one of the important parts of the computer, it plays the role of connecting all devices, almost all parts are plugged into it, or connected to it. The computer circuit board is generally a rectangular circuit board, on which the main circuit system of the computer is installed, generally there are BIOS chips, control chips, keyboard and panel control switch interfaces, indicator light plug-ins, expansion card slots, motherboards and plug-in cards DC power supply connectors and other components.

Table of Contents

What are computer components

A complete computer consists of 9 components: CPU, computer circuit board (motherboard), memory, hard disk, power supply, chassis, optical drive, graphics card, monitor; Other peripheral devices: mouse, keyboard, camera, audio. The above belongs to the hardware, the software is based on the hardware, with the support of the hardware, the software can run normally.

Is a computer circuit board the same as a motherboard

Yes. The printed circuit board that used in computer is called computer circuit board, main board or motherboard, which is the main hardware of the computer, and all other hardware relies on the motherboard to work, which is the basis of the computer hardware equipment. The motherboard contains a large number of hardware interfaces for the work of various hardware.

What is the function of circuit board in computer

the function of circuit board in computer

Computer circuit board, also known as motherboard, motherboard, is one of the most important factors affecting the overall performance of the computer. The circuit board is the nervous system of the PC, CPU, memory, graphics card, sound card, etc. are directly installed on the computer circuit board, and the hard disk, floppy drive and other components also need to be connected to the computer circuit board (mother board) through wiring.

The role of the computer circuit board:

1. Connect electrical appliances with different voltages together and provide corresponding power supply.

2. Connect electrical appliances with different functions together so that they transmit information to each other.

3. Receive external data and process it with other equipment.

4. Centralize the data processed by internal equipment and transmit it to the outside world.

5.Balance the data, energy, speed, temperature, current, etc. in the computer.

What’s the type of computer circuit board

Single sided PCB
Double sided PCB
Multilayer PCB
Flexible PCB
Rigid PCB
Rigid-flex PCB

What are on the computer computer board

What are on the computer computer board

Northbridge chip

The Northbridge chip is the most important chip in the computer circuit board chipset. The CPU, memory and graphics card in the computer are all controlled by the Northbridge chip, so the advantages and disadvantages of the Northbridge chip determine the performance of the computer circuit board to a certain extent. Since the Northbridge chip processes more data, in order to reduce the heat dissipated during its operation, a heat sink is generally installed on top of it.

Northbridge chip

The Southbridge chip is the second largest chip in the computer circuit board. The Southbridge chip controls input/output devices and external devices such as USB devices, IDE devices, SATA devices, audio controllers, keyboard controllers, real-time clock controllers, and advanced power management.

SATA interface

SATA (Serial ATA) hard disk interface, also known as serial ATA interface, is the main data interface of computer hard disk and optical drive. SATA transmits data in a continuous serial manner, reducing the number of pins in the interface and improving transmission efficiency. Compared to the IDE interface, the SATA interface has a faster transfer speed and supports “hot swap” technology.

IDE interface

IDE is the abbreviation of electronic integrated drive, which originally refers to the hard disk drive that integrates the hard disk controller with the disk body. The IDE interface, also called the ATA interface, has been gradually replaced by the SATA interface, and now there is at most one IDE interface on the motherboard.

CPU socket

A CPU socket is a dedicated socket for installing and fixing CPUs. The CPU supported by the motherboard is different, and the socket of the CPU is also different, which is mainly reflected in the layout of the electronic components on the back of the CPU and the difference in the socket structure. In order to prevent the CPU from being inserted incorrectly, there is a notch in the corner of the CPU socket, and the corner of the CPU with the notch can be placed accordingly.

Memory slots

Memory slots are slots used to hold memory sticks. The type and number of memory slots a motherboard uses determines the type and amount of memory that the motherboard supports.

Power supply slot

A power supply slot is a slot that provides the power supply to the computer circuit board, through which the power socket of the power supply can be connected to the computer circuit board. On ATX motherboards, power outlets are shaped like rectangular two-row 20- or 24-pin sockets.

PCI-E slots

The PCI-E slot is a slot used to connect devices that require large bandwidth requirements, mainly used to connect graphics cards, advanced network cards and sound cards. PCI-E slots can be divided into 1X, 4X, 8X and 16X according to their different transfer speeds, of which 1X mode can provide 255 MB/s transfer speed for advanced network cards and sound cards, and 16X mode can provide 5GB/s transfer speed for graphics cards in the slot.

BIOS chip

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) chip is a set of programs fixed on the read-only memory in the computer. The BIOS chip stores the most basic and important information such as system self-test, basic input/output programs, CPU parameters, memory parameters and chipset parameters.

CMOS battery

CMOS batteries store BIOS information by powering the BIOS chip, which is powered by the CMOS battery when the computer is turned off. If the CMOS battery is not charged, the information in the BIOS chip will be lost, and the computer will need to be reset to run normally.

External connectors

Different colors are used on the side of the computer circuit board (motherboard) to indicate different interfaces. The main external interfaces are PS/2 interface, USB interface, serial interface, parallel interface, integrated network card interface and integrated sound card interface. The PS/2 interface is used to connect the keyboard and mouse, where the blue is the keyboard interface and the green is the mouse interface. The USB interface is a flat, rectangular interface that can be used to connect cameras, scanners, etc.

How to assembly computer circuit board

● Apply solder paste to the PCB with stencil

● SMT placement machine placement element. The chip resistors, capacitors, IC chips, etc. on the computer circuit board will enter the chip machine from the conveyor and be firmly placed on the circuit board.

● The computer controls the automatic optical probe to check the status of the product on the entire processing line, and at the same time manually check the components for problems.

● The placement machine can only complete the SMT of small chips, and other large components including backplanes, CPU sockets, PCI slots, memory slots, capacitors, jumpers, crystal oscillators and other large components need to be manually inserted.

Wave soldering completes the tin and soldering work. The wave soldering furnace sprays the melted solder through the electric pump into the solder peak required by the design, which is a computer circuit board with pre-installed components through the solder crest to realize the mechanical and electrical connection between the component solder end or pin and the circuit board pad.

● After wave soldering, visual inspection and cleaning work is carried out. Then manually install the heatsink heatsink and perform a stability test.

What’s the process of computer circuit board design

The quality of computer circuit board design has a great impact on the performance of the circuit board, so when designing a PCB, the general principles of PCB layout design must be followed.

First of all, we must consider the size of the computer circuit board, when the PCB size is too large, the printed line is long, the impedance increases, the noise immunity decreases, and the cost increases; If the PCB size is too small, the heat dissipation is not good, and the adjacent line is easily disturbed. After determining the PCB size, the location of the special component is determined. Finally, according to the functional unit of the circuit, all the components of the circuit are laid out.
the process of computer circuit board design
Computer circuit board design process:
● Draw circuit schematics and generate network reports. Network reports are the bridge between schematics and PCB design systems.

● Plan computer circuit board: shape, size, number of layers, etc.

● Setting parameters: component layout parameters, board layer parameters and wiring parameters.

● Import network reports and component packages. The component package is the size of the component on the circuit board and the pad position corresponding to each pin。 Each component has a corresponding package.

● Component layout. Use protel software to automate or manually lay out.

● Wiring. Depending on the electrical connection between the component pins, multi-computer circuit boards are automatically or manually routed.

● Drill mounting holes and coat the PCB with copper in preparation for subsequent work.

● Conduct design rule checking. After passing the check, save and output the PCB file.

Computer circuit board assembly manufacturer -IBE electronics Inc

Computer circuit board assembly manufacturer

With the experience of more than 18 years, IBE offers turnkey PCB assembly services in prototype quantities or low-volume to large-volume production runs. IBE provides one-stop service from PCB design, PCB prototyping, PCBA processing (including SMT and DIP ), PCBA testing, and PCBA product assembly and packaging out of the warehouse. We have 14 SMT lines, 6 Dip lines, Lab, 75000 m²factory, and 4 product assembly production workshop, which will save your time and cost.


The computer circuit board is one of the most important components in the computer, carrying the functions of the core operation of the computer. The realization of computer circuit board functions largely depends on the role of various chips on the motherboard. Therefore, it’s very important to choose a good PCB manufacturer. For more questions, you can contact us: sales@pcbaaa.com.

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