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Electronic manufacturing industry
Chip Packaging Process – An Ultimate Guide

Chip, or IC (Integrated Circuit), as a high-tech industry, is an industry that all countries in the world are vigorously developing and researching. The IC industry mainly includes three parts: IC design industry, IC manufacturing industry and IC packaging and testing industry. In this article, let’s take a deeper look at the chip packaging technology in IC packaging and testing.

Table of Contents

What is chip packaging?

Chip packaging refers to the protective casing or enclosure that houses integrated circuit chips. It provides physical protection to the sensitive electronic components and facilitates their connection to external circuitry. Chip packaging plays a crucial role in ensuring the reliability, functionality, and performance of electronic devices.

Chip Packaging
Chip Packaging

Starting from all levels of chips made of silicon wafers, chip packaging can be divided into three levels, that is, first-level packaging that package the chip into a single chip module (Single Chip Module, SCM for short) and multi-chip module (MCM) with a packaging shell, also known as chip-level packaging; second-level packaging where the first-level packaging is assembled with other components on a printed circuit board (PWB) (or other substrate), also known as board-level packaging; A third-level package that inserts a second-level package onto a motherboard, also known as a system-in-package.

In fact, there is another step between the first, second, and third-level packaging and the IC chip, which is called zero-level packaging. Its main function is to connect the IC chip soldering area with the soldering area of each level of packaging through interconnection technology. That is to enable the chip to communicate with the outside world through the shell, and the zero-level packaging is also called the chip interconnection level.

Functions of chip package

Power distribution
Make current flow between the chip and the circuit; make the power distribution of different parts appropriate; reduce unnecessary loss of power

Signal distribution
Minimize the signal delay as much as possible

Cooling channel
Dissipate the heat generated by the chip to ensure that the system temperature can be maintained within the normal operating temperature range

Mechanical support
Provide strong and reliable mechanical support for chips and other components

Environmental protection
Make the parameters of the internal chip not affected by the surrounding environment

Chip packaging technology

4.1 Chip Interconnect Technology

Chip Interconnect Technology
Chip Interconnect Technology


The chip interconnect technology comes from the zero-level packaging, which is the key technology for establishing contact between the chip and the package shell and the external environment. There are three main types of chip interconnect technologies: wire bonding, automatic tape-carrier soldering, and flip-chip soldering.

4.2 BGA packaging technology
BGA (Ball Grid Array): It draws spherical pins in the form of an area array under the substrate, and mounts a large-scale integrated circuit chip on the substrate. It is a surface-mounted packaging form commonly used for large-scale integrated circuits chips.

  • Advantages: The size of the BGA package can be made smaller, and it also saves the wiring area of the PCB board.
  • Disadvantages: Bending stress on the board causes potential reliability issues; BGA packages are more susceptible to stress

4.3 CSP packaging technology

CSP packaging technology
CSP packaging technology


CSP (Chip Size Package), refers to an advanced packaging form (US JEDEC standard) whose package size does not exceed 1.2 times that of the bare chip. CSP technology is a packaging technology produced by continuously miniaturizing various package sizes in the process of further improving the existing chip packaging technology, especially the mature BGA packaging technology.

Advantages: small size; can accommodate a large number of pins; good electrical performance; good heat dissipation performance

What is BGA Package

Prospects for future packaging technology

Major trends of packaging technology in the future
(1) Development from packaging to less packaging and no packaging
(2) Passive components move toward integration
(3) 3D packaging technology

FAQ

Chip packaging refers to the protective casing or enclosure that houses integrated circuit chips. It provides physical protection to the sensitive electronic components and facilitates their connection to external circuitry. Chip packaging plays a crucial role in ensuring the reliability, functionality, and performance of electronic devices.

  • Power distribution
  • Signal distribution
  • Cooling channel
  • Mechanical support
  • Environmental protection

(1) Development from packaging to less packaging and no packaging
(2) Passive components move toward integration
(3) 3D packaging technology

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