Printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) design is a key aspect of electronics development and involves creating functional electronics from scratch. PCBA design involves integrating various electronic components and devices onto a printed circuit board (PCB) to create functional electronic components. The design process for PCBA can be divided into several phases, each of which requires careful planning and execution to ensure a successful outcome.
The first step in the PCBA design process is to define the concept and schematic. At this stage, the overall design and expected functionality of the PCBA are established, and schematic diagrams are created to show the connections between components. The schematic is essentially a blueprint for a PCBA, which shows how the various components will connect and how they will interact to achieve the desired functionality. This phase is critical as it lays the foundation for the rest of the PCBA design process.
● Open the New Engineering – project in the schematic software and name the schematic by yourself, a schematic template will be automatically generated.
● Click Library – Search Components – Place on the left to place the required components in the appropriate position on the schematic.
● Place the power GND symbol. Symbols and components can be left clicked and dragged, or the GND power symbol can be clicked directly from the electrical tool and placed in the drawing. If the tool window cannot be found, you can check the toolbar from the menu.
● Wire the schematic. The line can be dragged through your mouse, press the “K” key on the keyboard to make the drawing fit the screen size. The middle scroll wheel can zoom in or out of the schematic. The end goal is to connect the required endpoints with electrical wiring.
Note: If you draw it incorrectly, you can use the shortcut key “ctrl+Z” to go back to the previous step Ctrl+y to redo (forward and backward). If the component is placed incorrectly, the del button can be removed.
PCB layout design
Once the schematic is complete, the next step is PCB layout design. This phase includes drawing the physical layout of the printed circuit board, including components placement, signal and power routing, and grounding system design. A well-designed PCB layout is critical as it directly impacts the performance, reliability, and overall functionality of the PCBA. PCB layout should also consider factors such as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), thermal management, and manufacturing constraints to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications.
● Make sure the parts and schematic are ready.
● Make sure the symbol has the correct pin, part number, and component properties.
● The correct component size and shape, pin location and numbering, and the size of the pad pattern are required.
● Components should be placed in an orderly manner with readable text so that clear the visibility of what is being used.
● Neatly routed with well-defined names and pin numbers.
● Determine the size and shape of the PCB and do not temporarily change it in the design.
● The number of PCB layers should be determined with the manufacturer and customer in advance and added to the PCB.
● Arrange placement holes and areas.
● Place and route the board. Place the components before routing.
● Finally, create and send manufacturing documents, such as bill of materials reports and assembly drawings.
The third stage of the PCBA design process is component selection. Once the schematic and PCB layout are in place, the next step is to select the right components for the job. This may include microcontrollers, resistors, capacitors, and other components based on specific requirements based on the design. The selection of components should consider factors such as cost, availability, performance, and reliability to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications.
The fourth stage of the PCBA design process is PCB fabrication. The next step is to send the design to the manufacturer, who will use a process that includes depositing metal on the substrate to make the printed circuit board. The PCB manufacturing process is critical as it directly affects the performance, reliability, and overall functionality of the PCBA. Manufacturers should be selected based on factors such as cost, quality, and delivery time to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications.
Here is the PCB manufacturing process:
Internal layer imaging (negative)
Internal layer Developing
Internal layer Etching
Black / brown oxygen
Plated Through Hole (PTH)
Outer layer imaging (positive)
Outer layer Developing
Outer layer Etching
Printing solder mask
The fifth stage of the PCBA design process is PCB assembly. Once the PCB is ready, the components are then placed on the board and soldered into place. This stage requires precision and attention to detail to ensure that components are placed in the correct place and that the connection is safe and reliable. Factors such as EMC, thermal management, and manufacturing constraints should also be considered in PCB assembly to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications.
Here is the process of PCBA.
The final stage of the PCBA design process is PCBA testing. The final step is to verify the functionality of the PCBA to ensure that it meets the specified requirements. Testing should include functional and performance testing to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications. Testing should also consider factors such as EMC, thermal management, and manufacturing constraints to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications.
In conclusion, PCBA design is a complex, multi-stage process that requires careful planning and execution to ensure successful outcomes. The PCBA design process should consider factors such as cost, availability, performance, reliability, EMC, thermal management, and manufacturing constraints to ensure that the final product meets the required specifications. The key to designing a successful PCBA is to have a good understanding of electronics and experience using tools such as schematic capture and PCB layout software.
IBE is a professional one-stop PCBA manufacturer with 18 years’ experience. The company can provide PCB design, PCB manufacturing, quick turn PCB, components purchase, PCB assembly, PCBA test and so on, which will significantly reduce your cost.